Civics made easy for class 7 CBSE



          The fundamental unit of government administration below the state level is the district. Along with Gram Panchayat, the police as well as other officers appointed by the government play an important role in maintaining law and order. They are also looking after the administration in the rural areas.

The Police

          To maintain law and order, the officer – in – charge at the district level is Superintendent of Police (SP). Each sub – division or police circle is under the charge of a Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). In this way, SP oversees all police stations in a district.

Composition of the Police Station

  • The Inspector of Police or the Station House Officer or the Daroga oversees a Police Station.
  • Sub – Inspectors, Assistant Sub – Inspectors, Head Constables and Chowkidar work under the Inspector of Police.

Functions of the Police Station

  • The work of the police is to register the complaints or cases and then to investigate them.
  • Police acts on all the cases including land disputes within the area of their control.
  • The police takes various steps to prevent crime and maintain law and order in their area.
  • They keep a vigil on the activities of anti – social elements.

District Collector

  • The District Collector is the overall in charge of administration in a district.
  • Manages the functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions.
  • Supervises the elections to these local bodies and makes sure that elections are held in a free and fair manner.
  • Can also send a report to the State Government if he/she feels that the Panchayati Raj bodies are not working properly.


          Each district is divided into subdivisions called Tehsil. The revenue officer at the tehsil level is known as Tehsildar. He/she does the following: –

  • The Tehsildar supervises the work of the Patwari and ensures that records are properly kept, and land revenue is collected.
  • Hears the land disputes.
  • Makes sure that the farmers can easily obtain a copy of their records, students can obtain their certificates etc.

The Village Patwari

The Patwari maintains land records in a village. The main duties are: –

  • Measuring the land and maintaining records of the size of the land.
  • Maintaining records of ownership and inheritance of land.
  • Providing information to the government about the crops grown, based on harvest inspection.
  • Organising the collection of land revenue from the village.
  • Maintain the Khasra records.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act (The Inheritance Law, 2005)       

            This Act is an amended version of the Hindu Succession Act. The new act removes gender discriminatory provisions of the previous Act. Earlier, Hindu women did not get a share in the property of their parents.

Benefits of New Inheritance Law, 2005

  • This Act empowers women. It increases women’s livelihood options.
  • Reduces domestic violence.
  • Improves education and health conditions of women.
  • Provides a sense of economic security among women. It gives the self-confidence and social worth.


District Collector – Person in charge of the overall administration of a district.

Tehsildar – A person who collects land revenue and work under the District Collector.

Khasra – The detailed report on each land holdings, maintained by Patwari.

Superintendent of Police – An IPS Officer, in charge of police administration of a district.

SHO –  Station House Officer, in charge of a Police Station or a Thana.

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