Diversity is the range of many people or things very different from each other. It means the state of being diverse. Habits, views, beliefs, gender, attitude, personality and character make people different.

Diversity in India

          India is a vast country, with a variety of geographical and climatic conditions.

Geographical Diversity

            People adopt their lives to the geographical area in which they live. It determines the kind of food they eat; what they do for a living and the custom they follow. In cold places such as Kashmir, people eat meat and milk products, specially in winters as few crops are grown here. People living in coastal areas eat rice, fish and coconut; and the food is cooked with a lot of spices.

Economic Diversity

            The economic activities of an area are influenced by the area’s geographical conditions. People living in coastal areas depend on sea food as means to their livelihood unlike those in the mountains who depend on cattle and sheep rearing for their livelihood. The resources and opportunities that are available to the people is responsible for inequality of income.

Cultural Diversity

            The influence of the environment is also visible in the culture of the area which is often reflected in the festivals, customs and dance forms of the area. Most of the Indian states celebrate harvest festivals such as Baisakhi in Punjab, Onam in Kerala, Bihu in Assam and Makar Sankranti in Uttar Pradesh.

Religious Diversity

            India has been home to different religions. The most ancient religion of India is Hinduism. Other religions followed by people in India are Islam, Christianity, Sikhism etc. Our Constitution declares that India is a secular country where equal respect is given to all religions.

Positive Aspects of Diversity

  • Diversity enriches our knowledge. Good stories in other languages give us a lot of ideas.
  • We can be friend with people who are very different from us.
  • It inspires creativity and innovation.
  • It brings variety of viewpoints which help to solve problems.

Unity in Diversity

  • Unity in diversity means that despite of all our differences, we are one.
  •  The phrase ‘Unity in Diversity’ was given by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in context of India.
  • Our National Flag, National Anthem, National Bird and National Flower are the symbols of our unity.
  • Our National Anthem was originally composed in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore.
  • The National Song of India was composed by Bankim Chaudra Chattopadhyay.

Freedom Struggle

            During our freedom struggle, the British thought that Indians could be divided easily as they were from diverse backgrounds. Indians showed that diversity was not a weakness, but a source of their strength. Despite different cultural, religious and regional backgrounds. Indian men and women came together in large numbers to fight for freedom. They marched and struggled together against the British rule. It helped India in attaining freedom from Britishers.

Kerala: – A Case Study

  • Kerala is a narrow coastal state which lies between the Arabian Sea and Western Ghats on the west coast of India.
  • This state is known for its wide range of vegetation. Rice, coconut and a variety of species grow here. Jewish and Arab traders regularly came down to Kerala to trade in spices. Apart from this, cash crops such as tea, coffee etc are also grown.
  • Fishing is also an important occupation and it supports a large part of the population. The fishing nets used here are called Cheena – Vala. The frying vessel is called Cheena – Chatti. (Cheen refers to China)
  • Kathakali is the most popular classical dance of Kerala.

Ladakh: – A Case Study

  • Ladakh is a cold desert which lies in the mountains in the eastern part of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It is a dessert as there is no rainfall.
  • Hardly any tree grows here. With melted snow, people can grow wheat, barley, fruits and vegetables.
  • People mainly depend on sheep, goat, cow and yak rearing. The sheep in this region are special because they produce Pashmina Wool. This wool is very costly. Pashmina shawls are made from it.
  • Ladakh is called Little Tibet. It has a very rich oral tradition of songs and poems. Kesar Saga is the local version of Tibetan National Epic. It is sung by the people of this region.

Language policy of India

  • The people of India speak different languages.
  • Our constitution does not give the status of national language to any language.
  • The official language of Government of India is written in the Devanagari script as well as English.
  • States within India have the liberty and power to specify their own official language.
  • There are 22 officially recognised languages in India.


Constitution – The supreme law of the land according to which a country is governed.

Secularism – A concept according to which all religions enjoy equal respect or status.

Tradition – A long established custom or belief passed on from one generation to another.

Government – The group of people who officially control a country.

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